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ecosystems threatened by many influences

Both these ecosystems are identified as threatened, and have been listed through Parliament for protection under the Biodiversity Act.

The first national list of threatened terrestrial ecosystems for South Africa was gazetted on 9 December 2011 (National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act: National list of ecosystems that are threatened and in need of protection, (G 34809, GoN 1002), 9 December 2011).  The purpose of listing protected ecosystems is primarily to preserve witness sites of exceptionally high conservation value.

The Biodiversity Act (Act 10 of 2004) provides for listing of threatened or protected ecosystems, in one of four categories: critically endangered (CR), endangered (EN), vulnerable (VU) or protected. The purpose of listing threatened ecosystems is primarily to reduce the rate of ecosystem and species extinction. This includes preventing further degradation and loss of structure, function and composition of threatened ecosystems.

There are four categories of implications in listing an ecosystem:

Planning related implications, linked to the requirement in the Biodiversity Act for listed ecosystems to be taken into account in municipal IDPs and SDFs;
Environmental authorisation implications, in terms of NEMA and EIA regulations;
Proactive management implications, in terms of the Biodiversity Act;
Monitoring and reporting implications, in terms of the Biodiversity Act.

For more detailed information visit: http://bgis.sanbi.org/ecosystems/project.asp